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Medios libres, alternativos, autónomos o como se llamen



Entrevistas antigas com a indymedia


Cravado no Carmo


Leituras sobre a Indymedia

Imc Essay Collection

[EN] This page contains essays, case studies, and academic publications on Indymedia and tactical media.

[ES] Esta página contiene ensayos, estudios de caso, y las publicaciones académicas en Indymedia y los medios tácticos.

Additional indymedia-related publications are listed at:

and_. Nodes of Conflict: Weaving a Web of Radical Communications. October 2004

Summary: [Excerpts] Listening to Indymedia radio streaming live from the Republication National Convention protests in New York City, I hear people calling from outside the jailhouse as their fellow activists are released. The crowds cheer and chant, updates are given, stories are fed back into a massive communications web, bypassing the corporate media who are ignoring the 500,000 people protesting the Bush administration and the more than 2,000 people arrested.

Anderson, C. 2005 Is There a Public For Particpatory Journalism?: DRAFT

Summary: With the simultaneous emergence of web-based particpatory media and the decline of the “public journalism movement,” many intellectuals have sought do link developments online to their former work in public journalism. This paper examines the degree to which public and particpatory journalistic forms overlap, in a theoretical sense, and concludes with a call for internet-based media to realize its journalistic potential.

Anderson, C. 2005 The Deprofessionalization of Journalism?: DRAFT

Summary: In this essay I seek to outline an integrative theoretical structure within which to analyze changes that may or (may not) be taking place in the “business or practice of producing and disseminating information about contemporary affairs of general interest and public relevance.” The paper draws on the literature of the sociology of the professions, as well as work by Bourdieu, Foucault, and Weber.

Anderson, C. 2005 *Grassroots Journalism Online: DRAFT*

Summary: This paper attempts to situate research on online grassroots journalism within the larger tradition of alternative media research. It posits that grassroots journalism can be studied as a field. It examines four online, grassroots journalism websites: Indymedia UK, Wikinews, Ohmynews, and the Northwest Voice along a variety of content axes, in an attempt to figure out “what is actually going on” online.” It concludes by briefly discussing the impact of this research on the study of the public sphere.

Anderson, C. 2005 *Anarchism and the Public Sphere: DRAFT*

Summary: A theoretical paper tackling problems of political philosophy. Examines the literature of anarchism and traditional writings about “civil scoiety” in an attempt to find overlaps and differences. Argues that in order to understand the explosion of grassroots media online (including journalism like Indymedia) we need to de-center our understanding of the public sphere, moving it away from a focus on the state.

Atton, C. Indymedia: The Dynamics of Structure and Process in Alternative Journalism, invited speaker at the Polis workshop, ‘Internet: Structure and Use’, London Metropolitan University, 3 September 2003.

Atton, C. Indymedia and September 11th: Exploring Alternative Journalism on the Internet, paper presented as part of the 2002-2003 Media and Cultural Studies seminar series at London Metropolitan University, 19 March 2003.

Atton, C. What can Journalism Educators Learn from Alternative Media Practitioners?, paper presented at the Scottish Media and Communication Association annual conference, Glasgow, 22 November 2002.

Behling, Mario (Version: 15.03.2006): Das Wachstum des Indymedia-Netzwerks. Das erste global agierende alternative Mediennetzwerk. Frankfurt (Oder): Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder). URL: des Indymedia-Netzwerks.pdf. / Local Version, Databasis

Summary: Das Paper beschäftigt sich mit dem rasanten Wachstum Indymedias. Dies wird folgend unter anderem anhand einer Analyse der Anzahl von Indymedia-Kollektiven mit eigenen Websites nachvollzogen. Es zeigt sich dabei, dass das Wachstum bisher vor allem in der westlichen Welt und Lateinamerika vonstatten ging. Seit 2005 schwächte es sich hier jedoch erheblich ab. In anderen Weltregionen, zum Beispiel in Asien, bilden sich weiterhin neue Medien-Kollektive, jedoch nicht in dem Umfang, wie es bisher im Westen zu beobachten war. Nichtsdestotrotz muss dies nicht zwangsläufig als ein abflauender Trend angesehen werden. Einerseits operieren bestehende Indymedia-Kollektive fortlaufend weiter und sind für neue Mitglieder offen. Andererseits sind in einigen Ländern vermehrt auch Indymedia-Kollektive aktiv, die keine eigenen Webpräsenzen betreiben und bereits bestehende Websites und andere Kanäle, zum Beispiel Blogs, für die Medienpublikation nutzen. Dennoch das Ziel der verstärkten Einbeziehung von unabhängigen Medienmachern und Bürgerreportern aus Afrika und Asien stellt das Indymedia-Netzwerk vor neue Herausforderungen.

Blisset, Luther. The Future of Independent Media, 5th October 2004

Brooten, Lisa. Gender and the Independent Media Center: How alternative is this alternative? Prepared for presentation at the International Association of Media and Communication Researchers 2004 conference, Porto Alegre, Brazil

Summary: This paper explores the degree to which the IMC network has engendered alternatives to the patriarchal and imperialist conceptions of the world presented in transnational corporate mainstream media. The IMC challenge to corporate media occurs through both its mediated texts and its production processes. A textual analysis of features during the 2003 Iraq war demonstrates the use of gender as a tool used by both pro-war and anti-war participants in the IMC, perpetuating patriarchal and ethnocentric images. IMC’s production process goals seem to most directly challenge hierarchical and imperialist structures, although there appears to be much work yet to do.

Brooten, L. (2004). Digital Deconstruction: The Independent Media Center as a Process of Collective Critique. In Berenger, R. (Ed.), Global Media Goes to War. Spokane: Marquette Books.

Brooten, L. (2004). The Power of Public Reporting: The Independent Media Center’s Challenge to the “Corporate Media Machine.” In L. Artz & Y. R. Kamalipour (Eds.), Bring ‘Em On! Media and Power in the Iraq War. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Coleman, Biella Les temps d’Indymedia In Multitudes, May 2005. [French translation of the piece below. Shorter too, thankfully]

Coleman, Biella. Indymedia’s Independence: From Activist Media to Free Software In Planetwork Journal, July 2004.

Feeney, K. C. et al. Policy Based Management for Internet Communities In Fifth IEEE International Workshop on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks (POLICY’04) 06 07 – 06, 2004 link to pdf

Summary: A technical paper about challenges for organisational modelling and policy management for internet communities. Uses a slightly idealised version of the indymedia network as a case study. Many of the ideas in this paper are being incorporated into upcoming versions of the oscailt CMS.

Garcon du Monde. the Independent Media Centre: what future? Version 0.2, first published 19 Aug 2005. imc_future-v0.2.pdf

Summary: Personal viewpoint from an Indymedia activist, looking at how the network has grown, how it is currently working, and some potentials for how it may continue in the future. This is a pragmatic attempt to assess the state of being, particularly with the framework of discussing what a network is and how it may be implemented; however, this is not written from an academic perspective, instead relying heavily on personal experience and knowledge gained through Indymedia activism. Contact: GarconDuMonde

Guamanian. Censorship in Times of Netwar. 2004. In_Times_of_Netwar_v0-9.pdf

Summary: [Description] This personal essay begins with an examination of censorship in the context of social netwar and information dominance military doctrine, as contrasted to the traditional North American concept of censorship as a form of social control. I then zoom in to the micro-level, and explore the dilemmas around the censorship of ‘weaponized information’ at Victoria Indymedia, using transcripts, logs, and direct statements by participants to illustrate the techniques and thinking of some of the netwar ‘actors’ involved.Contact: GuamaniaN

Guamanian. Technologies of Insurrection: The Underground Press in the Movement of the 1960s and The Internet in the Global Justice Movement of the 90s and 00s. 2004. Technologies_of_Insurrection_v1-0.pdf

Summary: [Excerpt] This essay examines the ‘cracks’ in the communications infrastructure that allowed new media to arise in support of two 20th Century insurrections. Specifically the underground newspapers that were pivotal in coordinating the Movement of the 1960’s and the ‘Indymedia’ web sites that were central to the Global Justice Movement of the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. The comparison of these two insurrections focuses on the communications media that informed and organized the insurrections’ participants: What factors led to the rise of the unique media associated with the insurrection? What was the actual role of the media? How did the media’s unique features influence the insurrection’s successes and failures? In particular the differences between the two insurrections’ media that are attributable to computerization are considered, and a brief, speculative look at the intertwined future of the Internet and the anti-globalization mobilization is presented. Contact: GuamaniaN

Halleck, D. Indymedia: Building an international activist Internet network. First published in Media Development 4/2003.

Summary: [Excerpt from Introduction] In a space of less than three years, a grass roots media network has sprung up that has connected literally tens of thousands of media makers, created web sites visited by millions, projected videos in hundreds of venues, published newspapers in print runs of tens of thousands and transmitted web and micro radio programmes that have found avid and loyal audiences.

Hamm, Marion A r/c tivism in Physical and Virtual Spaces. Sept 2003.

Summary: Argues that social movements are creating a communication space where the physical and the virtual are merging. The imc reporting of the G8 protests in Evian, 2003, is one of the case studies

Hamm Marion: Indymedia UK: Urban Communica/action and the creation of a hybrid activist space in London. Conference Paper, re:activism, Budapest, October 14-15, 2005. (draft: urbanindymedia3.pdf, best open with xpdf PDF viewer.

Summary: Looks at indymedia’s offline activities in London. Using “connotative mapping”, a “geography of protest” becomes visible in the urban fabric of London, a geography that consists of digital and physical communication channels.

Hamm, Marion Indymedia – Concatenations of Physical and Virtual Spaces. June 2005.

Summary: [Excerpts] Global movements have been continuously producing public spheres where the distinction between the “real” and the “virtual” is fading away. From encounters in the geographical space of large mobilisations and local preparation meetings on one hand, and the thicket of websites, webfora, email lists, chatrooms and wikis on the other, a new, hybrid communication space is emerging.

Hamm, Marion Reclaiming Virtual and Physical Spaces. Indymedia London at the Halloween Critical Mass. In: Open 11, 2006. Online [en] [ne]

Summary: Using the 2005 Halloween Critical Mass Bikeride as an example, Marion Hamm analyses how cyberspace overlaps the physical space of a protest demonstration on the streets and how a construction of what she calls “geographies of protest” is developing.

Hill, Benjamin Mako. Software (,) Politics and Indymedia. March 2003.

Summary: [Excerpts] Other authors have established the existence and importance of the connection between the technological (Lessig calls it code) and the social structures that are created by and reflected in technological choices. In a case like Indymedia, this connection is explicit and central… Indymedia provides the perfect venue for an analysis of this muddy distinction. Because most IMC-Techs see their work on Indymedia software as a part of their political and social activism, they make the political or social motivations behind technical decisions unusually explicit… But the software is not all the same. Differences can seem subtle but they are intentional, considered, and extremely important. For some, these subtle differences represent the difference between media that is democratic and media that is tyrannical or fascist. For these reasons, an analysis of the points of convergence and differentiation between different Indymedia software can give us invaluable insight into the nature of the fuzzy area at the intersection of the political, societal and technical…

Jankowski, Nicholas W. and Jansen, Marieke. Indymedia: Alternative Media and the Conceptual Reconstruction of News. Department of Communication, University of Nijmegen, Netherlands. Paper for presentation Indymedia: Exploration of an Alternative Internet-based Source of Movement News at “Digital News, Social Change & Globalization Conference”, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, December 2003. – About the author & link to abstract:

Summary: [Abstract]: Recent alternative media initiatives, especially Independent Media Centers, sometimes known as Indymedia, and Web-based blogs, have begun to challenge professional journalistic notions of news and information. The news and information provided by these initiatives contrasts sharply with regard to traditional news values such as objectivity, balanced reporting, journalistic distance, and source attribution. In their place have emerged notions placing emphasis on engagement, personal perspective, and an ideological anti-globalist perspective.Contact: N.Jankowski@maw.kunSTOPSPAM.nl

Jones, J. and Martin, R. (2008) ‘CRYPTO-HIERARCHY AND ITS DISCONTENTS. INDYMEDIA U. K.’ in L. Stein, C. Rodriquez and D. Kidd, (eds.) Making Our Media: Global Initiatives Toward a Democratic Public Sphere, Cresshill NJ: HamptonPress?.

Summary: [Abstract]: Over the summer of 2004 we were invited by one member of the inner Indymedia U.K. circle to conduct on-line research into its user/contributor base. The invitation was then debated through IMC U.K. process, the main communication channel. We continued to monitor proceedings on the IMC U.K. process pages on the Internet into December 2006. We kept a diary of all the on-line discussions that ensued in an attempt to document the decision making process and looked for evidence to support or refute King’s description of the minority exercising ‘soft control’ over the majority. We conclude from this study that the reliance on technological elites does effectively channel and centralize power in the hands of a few. Ironically, the very ‘openness’ of the decision making process allowed us to monitor this limitation. We also observed that there is a healthy degree of reflexivity within the group that recognizes this problem and seeks ways of addressing it. We set our findings in the context of Habermas’s theories on how flows of influence may be organized so as to allow the most extensive democratization possible (the ideal public sphere) but also how communication is often subverted by systematic imperatives. This study suggests manifest causal links between the technological elite and the power base of Indymedia U.K. suggesting that Habermas’s ideal public sphere, where a social space is generated by communicative action protected from systematic imperatives by separation, is not easily facilitated through this form of Internet publishing.

link to chapter

Kidd, Dorothy. Carnival to Commons in Eddie Yuen, Daniel Burton Rose and George Katsiaficas (Eds.) Confronting Capitalism: Dispatches from a Global Movement. New York: Softskull Press. (2004). Carnival_to_commons.pdf

Excerpt: I first encountered the Indymedia center (IMC) in downtown Seattle, in late 1999, a whiff of tear gas away from the demonstrations against the World Trade Organization (WTO). Even then I was in awe. While earlier networks of radical media also countered the messaging of the dominant corporate and state media, the scope and scale of the IMC’s information-circulation capacities surpassed them…

Kidd, Dorothy. IMC: A New Model. (Lead Article for Special Issue on Indymedia for) Media Development, November 2003, Journal of the World Association for Christian Communication. IMC_a_New_Model.pdf

Excerpt: Since its birth in Seattle in late 1999 during demonstrations against the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Independent Media Center (IMC) Network has grown to over one hundred and ten autonomous centers in thirty-five countries. With half a million to two million page views a day, these multi-media sites provide an important source of counter information about struggles against corporate-led globalization, as well as local, national and international campaigns for peace and social justice. Operating with very little cash, the Network sustains itself on volunteer labour and donations, and as importantly, news and information from its audience through open publishing….

Langlois, Andrea. The Praxis of Open Publishing: Uniting Philosophy with policy and practice (Journal for the Art, Sciences and Technology. vol 02, No 01, 2004), see pdf and web

Milberry, Kate. Indymedia as a Social Movement? Theorizing the New Global Justice Movements. University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario. December, 2003. IndymediAsSocialMovement

Summary: [Excerpt from abstract]: In four years, the Independent Media Center (IMC) has become the largest alternative media network in the world. From its humble and uncertain beginnings in November, 1999 at the massive protests against the World Trade Organization in Seattle, Indymedia, as it has come to be known, has developed a democratic and participatory communication system that challenges the dominance of the corporate mainstream media. However, so far Indymedia has been examined almost exclusively as a component of the new global justice movements that seek to contest the oppressive forces of capitalism. In this thesis, it is my contention that Indymedia has developed into something much broader than its originators first envisioned. Thus, I examine IMC as a social movement in its own right, independent of other movements to which it remains aligned. Contact: kate.milberry(AT)

Milberry, Kate. (March, 2006). Reconstructing the Internet: How tech activists contest technical design in cyberspace. M/C Journal, (9)1. ReconstructingTheInternet

Summary: Much has been written about how the Internet has altered contemporary social justice activism; but how have activists changed the Internet through their global justice work? This paper looks at how tech activists, particularly those in IMC, have altered the technical design of the Internet, embedding it with democratic values and prefiguring the change global justice activism seeks to bring about in the broader society.

Milberry, Kate. (2007). The wiki way: Prefiguring change, practicing democracy. Tailoring Biotechnologies, (3)1. web pdf:

Summary: The Internet is an unfinished and contested technology that reflects the duality of science and technology – the double aspect of transformation and innovation. Today there is an imbalance of this internal tension, resulting in a disconnect between modern technology and social values. Tech activists have appropriated Internet technology, inflecting it with the goals and concerns of the global justice movement. Through their development of free software – in particular their customization of wiki technology – tech activists have created a space and tool for communication in cyberspace. In turn, this has enabled the realization of new communicative practices offline, establishing a dialectical relation between the technological and the social, and restoring technology’s transformative aspect. Democratic practice online prefigures the desire for a more just society; actualized as democratic interventions into the development and use of technology, it then manifests in alternative modes of social organization in the “real” world.

Morris, Douglas. Globalization and Media Democracy: The Case of Indymedia. A chapter for publication in: Shaping the Network Society. 2003. Schuler, Douglas and Day, Peter (Eds.), MIT Press.

Summary: [Description] Overview of indymedia organising in a framework of globalisation.

Neiworth, M, A. Parrhesia an old word and a new way of making news, For Foucault Parrhesia had five components; frankness, truth, danger criticism and duty…..

Peña, A. Indymedia

Pickerill, Jenny Out in the Open: Indymedia networks in Australia. Paper presented Sept 2003.

Pickerill, Jenny Indymedia and contested understandings of participation online. Powerpoint presentation 2005

Pickerill, Jenny (see her publication list for more)

Ranniko, Ulla: Ulla_Rannikko_Indymedia_SurveyReport.pdf

Salter, L (2006) Democracy & Online News: Indymedia and the Limits of Participatory Media in Scan: The Journal of Media, Culture, Arts 3(1)

Summary: The level of democracy in a given site can be measured by the degree of participation in decision-making afforded to ordinary people. So, an ‘extensive’ democracy may afford, for example, effective participation to workers in a factory, or to workers, parents and children at a school, as well as in some form of general assembly. The possibility of such participation is related to the degree to which systemic mechanisms such as the state and economy removes the scope for rational decision-making, replacing it with media such as power or money. We can consider media technologies and the uses of them through such a framework – they are democratic to the degree to which people can participate in the production process on their own terms.

This paper considers Indymedia as an alternative form of news production, using Bristol IMC to illustrate this. It then goes on to explain how the political economy of the Internet marginalises Indymedia, and catalogues state repression against Indymedia activists. The latter formed the basis for Indymedia’s database of repression

Scahill, Jeremy. The New York Model: Indymedia and the Text Message Jihad

Shumway, C. Democratizing Communication Through Community-based Participatory Media Networks: a Study of the Independent Media Center Movement. Masters Thesis, Media Studies Program, New School University, April 2003.

Summary: [Excerpt from Introduction] The growth of the Independent Media Center (IMC or Indymedia) movement is a giant leap forward in the struggle for communicative democracy. In just over three years, the IMC network has grown from one media production center and a Web site in Seattle, Washington to over 100 Web sites and dozens of physical media centers around the world. This is no small accomplishment for a loosely structured community of volunteers. Perhaps more impressive than the network’s growth has been its egalitarian social values and commitment to collective media production. Indymedia is at once a digital communications network and a social network of diverse personalities knitted together by a desire to practice in the present the kind of democracy that others only dream about for the future.

Surman, M. and Reilly, K. Appropriating the Internet for Social Change: Towards the Strategic Use of Networked Technologies by Transnational Civil Society Organizations. Social Science Research Council, 2003.

Summary: [Excerpt from Indymedia Case Study, pg. 35] Open publishing is deeply embedded in the cultural, political and technical DNA of Indymedia. “When the first Indymedia opened in Seattle, stories were published to the Web with little editorial oversight. Following an “open posting” policy, anyone could file a report” (Hyde, 2002). For this reason, early versions of Indymedia’s Active software included very little control for editors and site managers. And, for a number of years, Indymedia activists defended open publishing as if it were true and pure religion. Certainly, there was a logic to this position. Unlike more generic open publishing tools like blogs or personal web sites, Indymedia sites represent a collective space for openness – they are not primarily about ego or singularity. There was – and in some circles remains – a strong belief that this collective openness needs to be protected at all costs…

Uzelman, Scott. Catalyzing Participatory Communication: Independent Media Centre and the Politics of Direct Action. School of Communication, Simon Fraser University. July, 2001.

Summary: [Excerpt from abstract] This thesis, which focuses on the IMC movement in general and the Vancouver IMC in particular, is my attempt to better understand this ongoing experiment in democratic media and, moreover, to situate it within broader struggles for social and environmental justice. IMC, I argue, is important in three ways: it provides a means of overcoming the de facto blockade enacted by the corporate media, its participatory nature allows for new and more democratic forms of communication, and it offers an example of the ability of subordinated groups to create autonomous spaces of resistance to domination by capital and the state.

I begin this study with an overview of IMC, its brief history, the processes and structures that comprise it, and the challenges it faces. A more focused discussion on Vancouver IMC follows the overview. This examination of one particular node in the IMC network is inspired by my experience of participatory action research with Vancouver IMC activists for a period lasting more than a year and a half.

Comunicação Digital: